Diabetes is one of the most common disorders experienced by individuals worldwide. Diabetic patients are at the highest risk of suffering from wounds and chronic ulcers. These wounds mostly occur due to the breakdown of the skin which results in exposure of underneath skin layers. Wound care in diabetic patients is essential for which you need proper dressings and ointment to protect the wound against infection. Let’s have a look at the type of diabetic wounds, their complications, and line of treatment.
TYPES OF DIABETIC WOUNDS:
The wounds in diabetic patients should be immediately treated as they can result in non-healing ulcers. The two most common forms of diabetic wounds include the following:
Internal origin and external origin The wounds of external origin result due to peripheral neuropathy such as bumps, burns, skin cuts and others. If you do not notice the wounds of external origin they might turn into severe complications. The wounds of internal origin include skin ulcers, calluses or ingrown toenails which can result in skin breakdown and regional tissues leading to higher chances of bacterial infections. The diabetic wounds result in chronic pain, pus discharge, foul odor, dead tissue formation, numbness, chills, fever, and ultimately severe infection.
DIABETIC WOUND INFECTION:
The diabetic wounds turn into either one form of following infections:
Cellulitis- During cellulitis, tender, non-raised and erythematous skin lesions are formed which might occur at times with lymphangitis. Cellulitis occurs due to Staphylococcus Aureus or Streptococcal infections.
Acute or chronic osteomyelitis- during acute osteomyelitis, peripheral neuropathy might be present. Regional adenopathy and fever might also be associated with acute osteomyelitis.
Chronic osteomyelitis is usually associated with low-grade fever, lymphangitis might not be seen while discharge is commonly present with a foul odor. In chronic osteomyelitis, penetrating and deep ulcers are formed along with sinus tracts.
Deep-skin or soft-tissue infections- the patient feels ill during this condition with painful induration present within the soft tissues. Wound discharge is absent in such infections which are of mixed type. The patient feels extreme tenderness and pain in such type of diabetic wound infections. The discharge from these wounds usually occurs with a foul odor.
DIABETIC WOUND HEALING OINTMENT:
There are many ointments in the market which help in promoting the healing process of the diabetic wounds. Some of them include the following:
- PEDIFIX DEEP HEALING DIABETIC FOOT CREAM
- SALK BORAGE DIABETIC CARE FOOT CREAM
- LANTISEPTIC THERAPEUTIC CREAM
Along with these ointment creams, the proper wound dressing is essential for the rapid healing process. Choose the ointments and dressings which promote a speedy recovery and offer antibacterial effect over the affected site.
TYPES OF DRESSING IN DIABETIC WOUNDS:
For the diabetic wounds, you need to keep your wounds properly cleaned with appropriate wound dressing. The wound dressings for diabetic wounds include:
It is pliable, soft dressing which guards the wound against infection and bacterial invasion. The inner foam part in this dressing absorbs the fluids from the wounds allowing rapid healing. The structure of this wound is very simple allowing ease to utilize it for different types of wounds. This dressing locks down the wound secretions and offers a moist atmosphere to the wound resulting in the accelerated healing process.
SEASORB SOFT ALGINATE:
These dressings are obtained from seaweed. It maintains a favorable environment for rapid wound healing. These dressings are made up of a mixture of carboxymethylcellulose and alginate fibers leading to complete absorption and pain-free removal. These dressings work well for wounds with severe exudate formation.
This dressing is soft, flexible and contains an anti-microbial agent i.e. polyhexamethylene biguanide. This agent binds to the outer membrane of bacteria resulting in its death. The dressing then prepares a sterile field for the wounds to result in accelerated healing.
This dressing is highly recognized for wound care. The dressing is made up of woven gauze that is fluff-dried and prewashed. It cushions the wound area and offers a fast-wicking effect which pulls the exudate from the diabetic wounds. This dressing is absorbent and airy for the wound.
WHAT CAUSES DIABETIC ULCERS?
There are many different causes of diabetic ulcers. These ulcers can simply result from a pair of new or tightly fitted shoes. The diabetic ulcers can either occur due to nerve damage where you are unable to feel your feet or you can also suffer from diabetic ulcers if there is ischemia or poor blood flow towards the affected site. The poor blood flow occurs due to arteriosclerosis which can result in diabetic ulcers.
Other causes for diabetic ulcers include venous insufficiency where the valves of the leg veins are non-functional resulting in sluggish blood flow or congestion. These ulcers can also occur due to kidney failure, hypertension, clotting disorders, lymphedema where the fluid builds up within the legs or inflammatory conditions. The diabetic ulcers can also occur due to genetic conditions, malignancy, infections, certain drugs, smoking or an external pressure during sleep.
DIABETIC FOOT ULCER STAGES:
The diabetic foot ulcer stages are classified on the basis of presence or absence of infection and reduced blood flow or ischemia. The grades of diabetic foot ulcers are following:
- GRADE 0: pre or post-ulcerated site which has healed completely
- GRADE 1: superficial type of diabetic wound that does not involve any capsule, tendon or bone
- GRADE 2: a diabetic wound that penetrates the capsule or tendon
- GRADE 3: a diabetic wound that penetrates the joint or bone
The stages of diabetic wounds include the following:
- STAGE 1: clean diabetic wounds
- STAGE 2: non-ischemic type of infected diabetic wounds
- STAGE 3: ischemic type of non-infected diabetic wounds
- STAGE 4: ischemic type of infected diabetic wounds
BioFlex LASER THERAPY FOR WOUND CARE- WITHOUT ANY ADVERSE EFFECTS:
Bio flex laser therapy is one of the effective means of treating diabetic wound infections. It is a non-invasive and pain- free procedure which heals the wounds in the most appropriate way. The diabetic ulcers are treated with lasers in such a way that it results in stimulation of epithelization over the wound surface, improves the arterial perfusion and lead to regeneration of regional and local tissues surrounding the wound.